Greetings to everyone receiving our first Fourfold Newsletter. This is all very exciting for me for a number of reasons. When I think about what has happened in the past seven to 10 years, especially up until the publishing of the book, this time feels like a long gestation period, or perhaps a kind of hibernation. During these years, I treated a lot of people, went to a lot of conferences and workshops, and did tons of reading and researching various subjects concerning all aspects of health and the human condition. At some point inwardly I felt: “Enough, here is what I have come to. Right, wrong, or somewhere in between, it’s time to put it all out there and see what people think.” Hence, the book and the newsletter.
Of course, the studying and modifying is nowhere near done; that is a life-long project. I hope you all will accept the newsletter in this spirit, as my attempt to share my vision and my thoughts after these 25 years of practice and study. I welcome feedback of any sort, and above all hope the newsletter and the book generate discussions, actions, and deep questions, all with the goal of helping to further change the often misguided course our culture has been on for a very long time.
Tom Cowan, MD
The heart does not pump. It listens.
Over the past twenty years I have pondered Rudolf Steiner’s statement that the heart is not a pump, and I offer it up as a challenge to modern medicine. If the heart doesn’t pump, then what does it do? In our premier issue, we focus on how the heart works, not only on the physiology of its function, but also on its role as conductor and tireless therapist, integrating, sorting and processing all of our impressions, trying to create harmony and rhythm out of all that happens in our lives.
If the heart doesn’t pump, what does the pumping?
I define a pump as the part of a system that creates the force responsible for the movement of fluid. Osmotic pressure created by metabolism, by the fuel exchange between blood and cells, this circulatory process functions as the pumping mechanism. The heart is not the pump.
To make sense of this concept, imagine circulation as a closed loop, in which the blood is confined to the inside of the blood vessels. We can make some specific observations about the movement of blood in this system.
1. The volume of blood at the point of the heart is compressed into a small space.
2. Blood travels from the heart through arteries that get progressively smaller until they reach the turnaround point at the network of capillaries which, although individually small, comprise a very large field of activity throughout our bodies.
3. At the transfer points, nutrients are exchanged between blood and cells, changing the volume of water, and creating a gradient of pressure, osmotic pressure.
4. The blood then makes its return journey through the veins which become progressively larger as they approach the heart. The more water and oxygen in the mixture, the greater the osmotic pressure, the more efficient the flow, the healthier the system.
Elementary physics and hydraulics would say that in a closed system in which fluid is moving, the velocity at any one point is inversely proportionate to the size of the area. Contrary to our usual perspective, we must conclude that the velocity of the blood is greatest at the heart level and slowest at the capillary level, where it needs the greatest push.
How to get that push? Some might say drink more water. But ingested water doesn’t reach capillaries, at least not very effectively. What does cause efficient water production at the capillary level? Metabolism, and according to biochemistry texts:
* consumption of 10 grams of protein releases 4 grams of water
* consumption of 10 grams of carbohydrates releases 6 grams of water
* consumption of 10 grams of fat releases 10 grams of water.
This release of water comes only when sufficient oxygen is present in the blood., and moderate, regular exercise is the most effective way to release more oxygen into the blood.
Sufficient oxygen plus a metabolism in which cells live predominately on fats results in the most efficient pump, the healthiest circulation, and a healthier heart. Thus the strategy with any “dis-ease” of the heart is to slowly increase the percentage of healthy fats in your diet while at the same time increasing the amount of moderate exercise you do.
This simple model is the backbone of my recommendations to those with problems of the heart and circulation: eat more fats and get more exercise. Metabolization of fats generates healthier circulation by making the osmotic gradient more pronounced.
On a social note: Using the human being as metaphor for our social system, let’s apply the concept of the heart as listener rather than pump to our social constructs. The model should not be one of central control as the pump, be it a socialist state or the Federal Reserve, but one of freedom and decentralization. The pump should be the 10 million local farms each taking care of their own land and neighbors rather than a central farm policy or one or two large conglomerates; thousands of artisans making shoes and clothes rather than a few large companies producing in Third World sweatshops; a billion religions, not a half dozen dogmas; a God that listens and reacts to our needs, just as the heart reacts to the circulation, not the other way around.
If the heart doesn’t pump, what does it do?
As I point out above and in my heart chapter in the Fourfold Path to Healing, it is clear that the walls of the heart do not propel the blood. In fact, a more accurate way to phrase the relationship between the heart and the movement of the blood is that the blood pumps the heart. The reason this is more accurate is that the momentum for the movement of the blood increases as it goes through the venous system as it approaches the heart. The heart acts as a dam, holding back this onrushing blood. The blood is “collected” in holding tanks, called chambers, until there is sufficient pressure buildup in the chambers to open the gates, otherwise called valves. So in a very real sense it is the blood that is the active force, the heart doesn’t contract as much as it collapses into itself when the blood rushes out.
So if the heart is not a pump, what does it do? Well, first, as I said it acts as a dam or a brake for the circulation, but that is far from all our wonderful heart does. It is a primary endocrine organ, it is a primary sensory organ, and most importantly it controls the rhythmical process for the entire organism. This control of the rhythm of the organism happens through a process called entrainment. This means that all of the cells in our body are looking for a master organ or field on which to entrain that will help these individual cells tune into the rhythm of the organism as a whole.
I liken this to the conductor of an orchestra. The conductor holds the rhythm and the idea of the purpose of the composition for the whole group. Each individual instrument has its own job and its own rhythm to follow; but to function as a group, the individual players must keep attuned
or entrained on the rhythm of the conductor. It has been shown that in the human body there are three possible conductors: the heart, the brain and the gut (or solar plexus). Of these, the heart is the most powerful, the best conductor. It has the best idea of the composition as a whole. The cells of the entire body look to entrain on the heart and will do so if possible. In disease, however, they either go their own way or entrain on the less able brain or gut.
To a certain extent our cells entrain on where our awareness is most present. If we truly live from our heart, our cells are helped to find the healthiest rhythm for the entire organism. So, perhaps the most important function of our heart is to provide basis for the healthy rhythm of the entire organism.
In recent years a test has been developed that can give some idea about the rhythmic abilities of the heart. Called the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) test, it measures what is called the beat-to-beat variability of the heart, that is the variation between one beat and the next. It has been shown that a healthy heart has an intermediate beat-to-beat variability. If the HRV is too low then the heart is beating in a mechanical way, akin to a metronome. That is a sure sign of an ailing heart or, better said, an ailing rhythmical ability. Conversely, an HRV that is too high connotes an arrhythmia, which is also a sign of an ailing heart.
Again, the best way to visualize this is to compare it to a symphony orchestra. The conductor cannot be a metronome or the music sounds like disconnected notes. The soul of the music is in his ability to work with the spaces between the notes, the rhythm. Also, if there is no rhythm, the totality of the piece will be lost. In the same way, our heart conducts our inner symphony to allow our soul to live creatively in our physical bodies. That is why for ages it has been called and associated with love, the soul’s highest calling.
Rudolf Steiner, in his medical work, came up with a medicine to “strengthen” the heart, called Cardiodoron (literally, heart medicine from Steiner). Cardiodoron is a mixture of three plants, cowslip (Primula veris), Scotch thistle (Onopodon acanthium), and henbane (Hyoscayamus). Steiner viewed these three plants as representative of the three parts of the plant (root, leaf and flower) corresponding to the three parts of the human being (head, heart and abdomen — also the three main energy centers of our bodies). They also represent three of the four seasons that plants normally grow (excluding winter). Thus the function of this medicine is simply to encourage a healthier rhythm.
Research shows this supplement helps to encourage our bodies to find a healthy rhythm. If you have an interest, I suggest you look at two recent abstracts of studies published on Cardiodoron, the first on the effect of Cardiodoron on cardio-respiratory coordination, the second on modulation of heart rhythm variability. Cardiodoron helps to encourage our bodies to find a healthy rhythm, which helps the entire organism. Bowels that function rhythmically create regular, healthy stools. Rhythmical breathing is the antithesis of asthma. Truly healthy rhythm is at the basis of any therapy directed at regaining health. In that sense, Cardiodoron is a kind of homunculus, a true universal medicine that can help with any disease process.
What to do about the flu?
Give me a medicine to produce a fever and I can cure any disease.
Hippocrates (the “father” of medicine)
One of the most amazing things about medicine is how little things have really changed in the past two thousand or so years. Back in the “olden” days there was a wisdom about how our bodies work that would be difficult for most modern physicians to match even today. In the quote above, Hippocrates was referring to a common observation at that time: the way people healed from chronic diseases was that something would happen to make the illness more dramatic, more acute; the patient would be laid up in his bed; the fever would burn; and, in the more poetic style of language of that time, the patient would be cleansed.
We can still see this process at work in the simple case of a person getting a splinter in their finger. If not removed, the area around the splinter starts to fester, it turns red, gets painful and then eventually pus forms. The pus opens up the channels for the splinter to be expelled from the body and health is restored. I’m also reminded of the language used in Chinese medicine when they describe a “bad wind” or external poison that invades the body and must be removed through herbs that drain the poison, particularly by opening the channels of elimination.
This simple example plays itself out in the medical situation of modern people every day. Consider the smoker who daily breathes “debris” into his or her lungs. The body responds to this “splinter” or external invader with the only cleansing mechanism it has available which is warmth, mucus and even pus, exhibited as bronchitis that we see in smokers or people otherwise exposed to external poisons (including viruses, i.e. the influenza virus).
Unfortunately, modern medicine has not been well schooled in this dynamic process approach to medicine. Instead they conceive of the world as individual “entities” or illnesses which have little relationship to whatever else is happening in the system. This disconnected approach underlies the conclusion that “you just caught a virus.” Because of this disconnected approach to medicine, most health care providers or attack the cleansing, that is the mucus, instead of “opening the channels, encouraging expectoration, and restoring the patient to health.”
This “opening of channels”is my approach to treating the “flu.” First, we try to avoid the “debris” that will only need to be cleansed at some point, by avoiding “bad” food and other environmental toxins as much as possible, and by providing a well nourished body. Adequate vitamin A from good fats and cod liver oil, adequate vitamin D in these same foods, and lots of lacto-fermented foods are important to provide a healthy microbial population or inner ecosystem. All of these things in the context of a Nourishing Traditions type of diet will go a long way towards preventing the usual colds and flu in the wintertime.
If there should be symptoms of a cold or flu, the strategy is to immediately rest, drink lots of soup broth for its warming and loosening properties, take extra coconut oil, about 2-4 Tbsp per day, for its anti-microbial effects, and take herbs and medicines which “warm and loosen”.
My favorites are Echinacea tablets or liquid from Mediherb, 2 tablets or 1 tsp four times per day for the first week. I also use Bronchafect, which contains a mixture of warming and expectorant herbs, at the dose of 2 tablets or 1 tsp four times per day. Finally, I use Congaplex from Standard Process at the dose of 2 capsules four-six times per day until feeling better. Congaplex has some thymus extract which is the organ that produces the T cells that “immunize” you (naturally) against the foreign poison (in this case, the virus).
Many people ask me about using vaccinations to prevent flu, wondering whether or not to get them. I’m not a proponent of these vaccines, particularly because of the immune suppression and increase in toxic load (formaldehyde, mercury, etc. found in modern flu vaccines) that result from flu shots.
Instead, we should use the above nutritional and therapeutic method, and then we can change the flu from a serious event to an opportunity to actually achieve better health.
For more information on the problems with flu shots and vaccines in general, please see articles by Russell Blaylock, MD, a speaker at the most recent Weston A. Price conference and contributor to a variety of health publications.
Trying to lose weight? Facts vs. fears about fat
by Dr. Mary Enig and Sally Fallon
Excerpted with authors’ permission from Eat Fat, Lose Fat (Hudson Press, Dec 2004)
As the French maintain their trim physiques while consuming triple cream brie, steak au poivre, and bearnaise sauce, most American adults would barely dare to drink a glass of whole-fat milk. For the last 25 years, government recommendations, medical doctrine, food advertising, and so-called health experts have stressed low-fat and non-fat foods, cautioning people to avoid fats in general, particularly saturated fats from animal products and tropical fats, like coconut.
“Are you eating lots of foods high in fat (especially saturated fat)?” worries the American Heart Association website. “Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol,” echo the USDA 2000 food guidelines. A scant two to three daily servings of dairy or other animal foods–specified to be “low-fat or fat-free”–are recommended in the Food Pyramid (developed by the USDA and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute website offers “heart healthy recipes” with reduced fat content, such as Stuffed Potatoes made with soft margarine, low-fat cottage cheese, and low-fat milk.
Yet America, not France, is the nation with galloping rates of obesity. How effective have the recommended low-fat diets and low- and non-fat foods really been, given that 97 million Americans (that’s 64 percent, an 8.6 percent jump from 1994 to 1999) are overweight, according to a study published in the October 2002 Journal of the American Medical Association.
And weight gain is not just a question of appearance. Obesity was number two on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention list of preventable causes of death in 2004 (after smoking). According to government statistics, being overweight substantially increases the risk of hypertension, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, and respiratory problems, as well as endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Higher body weight increases mortality for all causes.
If you are among the overweight and want to avoid these diseases, you’re caught in a vicious cycle. Once the pounds pack on, your energy plummets, making it harder to exercise. Even if you only need to lose a few pounds, or are not overweight at all, you may find that you suffer from low energy, chronic fatigue, food cravings, and depression. Why?
Based upon our collective experience–Dr. Mary Enig is a world-renowned biochemist and nutritionist, best known for her pioneering research on healthy fats and oils and her early protests against trans fats, and Sally Fallon is a food industry researcher, chef, and president and cofounder of the Weston A. Price Foundation–we believe that while you may be overweight, you are also likely to be undernourished, lacking vital nutrients that your body derives from fat. Think “healthy fat” is a contradiction in terms? Read on. Let us share with you the facts vs. the fears about fat.
We know…you’ve heard that saturated fats are unhealthy. Who hasn’t? You’ll be surprised to learn about research published during the last 20 years in respected scientific and medical journals, like The Journal of Lipid Research, Reviews in Pure and Applied Pharmacological Science, and The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, that shows that just the opposite is true. Your body needs not only fats, but saturated fats, to nourish your brain, heart, nerves, hormones and every single cell. Saturated fats form a key part of the cell membranes throughout your body. When you eat too many unsaturated fats, the kind found in polyunsaturated vegetable oils, these fats adversely affect the chemistry of those membranes.
How does this affect you? Overstocked with the wrong kinds of fats, and lacking sufficient quantities of the right kinds of fats to create healthy cells, your body becomes nutritionally deprived, and a host of health problems ensue. Your energy drops, your nerves don’t fire efficiently, glands malfunction, your hormones and metabolism head south. With cells weakened from lack of necessary nutrition, weight loss is an uphill battle. This is exactly what 95 percent of dieters have experienced up until now. You’re tired, you’re always hungry, and you gain weight!
Yet, for many people, the idea that your body needs fat seems hard to accept, when fat is what you’re trying to lose. If you have flab under your arms, cellulite on your thighs, and a stomach that enters the room ahead of you, can you still be fat deprived? Yes! The fact is that your body’s visible fat stores do not necessarily result from fat consumption. Nor do they indicate adequate levels of fat-derived nutrients. You could be 200 pounds overweight and still be undernourished and fat deprived.
Three Kinds of Fats
In order to understand how to include fats properly in your diet, you need to know the differences among the three basic types of fats found in food. Then, you must be aware of the dangers of trans fat: an artificially produced fat found widely in processed and packaged foods. Fats (also called lipids) are a class of organic substances that do not dissolve in water. They are composed of chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms filling the available bonds and are called fatty acids because of their structure. Despite that terminology, they don’t behave like acids in the way that water-soluble acids such as vinegar do.
Found predominantly in animal fats and tropical oils like coconut oil and in lesser amounts in all vegetable oils (and also made within your body, usually from excess carbohydrates), saturated fats are structured so that all available carbon bonds are occupied by a hydrogen atom, which makes them highly stable and also straight in shape, so that they are solid or semisolid fat at room temperature. As a result of their unique composition, they are less likely to go rancid when heated during cooking and form dangerous free radicals that can cause a litany of ills, including heart disease and cancer.
The monounsaturated fatty acid most commonly found in our food is oleic acid, the main component of olive oil and sesame oil, as well as the oil in almonds, pecans, cashews, peanuts, and avocados. Your body can also make monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids when it needs them for various bodily functions.
Chemically, monounsaturated fatty acids are structured with one double bond (composed of two carbon atoms double-bonded to each other). Because this bond causes the molecule to bend slightly, these fats do not pack together as easily as saturated fats, so they tend to be liquid at room temperature but become solid when refrigerated.
Like saturated fats, however, monounsaturated oils are relatively stable. They do not go rancid easily and hence can also be used in cooking.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds. The two polyunsaturated fatty acids found most frequently in our foods are linoleic acid with two double bonds (called omega-6) and linoleic acid, with three double bonds (called omega-3). (The omega number indicates the position of the first double bond.)
Because your body cannot make these fatty acids, they are called “essential” and must be obtained from foods. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have bends or turns at the position of the double bonds and hence do not pack together easily. They remain liquid, even when refrigerated.
Unpaired electrons located at the double bonds make these oils highly reactive. When they are subjected to heat or oxygen, as in extraction, processing, and cooking, free radicals are formed. It is these free radicals, not saturated fats, that can initiate cancer and heart disease. As such, industrially processed polyunsaturated oils, such as corn, safflower, soy, and sunflower oils, should be strictly avoided.
The Dangers of Trans Fats
Manufactured foods, such as baked goods, some frozen foods, margarine, chips, fast-food fries and countless other products, contain rearranged fatty acids called trans fats, which are produced artificially by bombarding polyunsaturated oils with hydrogen, a process called partial hydrogenation. This process makes the normally twisty polyunsaturated fatty acids straighten out and behave like saturated fats in foods. As a result, trans fats have a longer shelf life. They pack together easily so they are unnaturally solid at room temperature and can be used as spreads and shortenings. Because they can be made so cheaply and because their inclusion helps packaged foods to last nearly forever, the food industry prefers to use trans fats made from cheap soy, canola, corn, or cottonseed oil rather than more expensive animal fats or tropical oils.
For years medical experts, government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration, and medical organizations such as the American Heart Association (AHA) urged Americans to abandon traditional saturated fats in favor of partially hydrogenated oils in order to reduce the risk of heart disease. These organizations boosted margarine, for example, as healthier for the heart than butter.
Yet a large body of scientific research now demonstrates that these altered fats, which people are still told to eat to reduce their cholesterol levels, actually increase cholesterol and also the risk for heart disease. Trans fats also compromise many bodily functions, including hormone synthesis, immune function, insulin metabolism, and tissue repair. What’s more, they promote weight gain. In fact, a person whose dietary fats are mostly trans fats is likely to weigh more than a person who does not consume trans fats, even if their caloric intake is the same.
In 2002, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that there is no safe level of trans fat in the diet. In 2004, an FDA advisory panel concluded that trans fat is “even more harmful than saturated fat”.
The Scientific Turnaround on Fat
Today, more physicians are beginning to admit that the anti-fat campaign hasn’t won the health-and-weight-loss war. Dr. Frank Hu, also of the Harvard School of Public Health, cautioned that “the exclusive focus on dietary fat has been a distraction in efforts to control obesity…” (our italics). Speaking to the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), which prepared the revised USDA Food Pyramid for 2005, Dr. Hu pointed out, “Conventional wisdom holds that the more fat you eat, the more likely you are to become obese. However, the evidence does not support the conventional wisdom…” He cited 16 long-term studies (6 to 18 months in duration) that showed “no evidence that a low-fat diet is more beneficial”.
What’s more, recent studies confirm that healthy fat consumption promotes sustainable weight loss (something we’ve been saying for years!). “Studies conducted in the past three years have found a moderately high-fat diet…to be more beneficial [than low-fat diet] in terms of adherence, weight loss, and weight maintenance, while also reducing cardiovascular risk factors,” Dr. Hu affirmed.
With this new evidence, government and medical authorities will begin to readjust their dietary guidelines to include more fat. Yet they still subscribe to the false notion that saturated fats are bad, so the most prominent fats in the new food guidelines will be liquid vegetable oils, including soy, canola, and safflower, in spite of considerable evidence that a diet including only liquid fats can lead to serious health problems, including heart disease and cancer.
Healthy fats include omega-3 fatty acids (found in cod-liver oil, egg yolks, and flax oil), medium-chain fats (found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and butter), and long-chain saturated fats (found mostly in meat and dairy products). They’ll help you lose weight, increase your energy, boost your immunity to illness, and optimize your digestion.
So the real, scientific way to lose fat is to eat fat–as we’ll show how you in our new book, Eat Fat, Lose Fat. We will take you beyond your fears about fat, to the facts about fat, with diet programs and menu plans and with several strands of evidence to clear up prevailing misunderstandings about fats and their role in human health.
For more information, and to read the complete first chapter, visit the Eat Fat, Lose Fat website.
Excerpted with authors’ permission from Eat Fat, Lose Fat, Hudson Press, Dec 2004.
About this month’s guest contributors:
Both Mary Enig and Sally Fallon bring many years of work in the field of nutrition to the eating program offered in Eat Fat, Lose Fat. Aside from being one of the world’s most renowned nutritional scientists, Dr. Enig is the author of the highly regarded professional publication Know Your Fats (Bethesda Press, 2000). In the course of studying, lecturing, and teaching around the world for the last 20 years, Mary has both contributed to and kept abreast of all the scientific and medical literature on fats, and she became an early and articulate critic of the harmful type of fats we now know as trans fats. Against much opposition, she began pushing for including the percentage of trans fats on nutrition labels decades ago. Mary is president of the Maryland Nutritionists Association and was recently honored by the American College of Nutrition for her pioneering work in calling attention to the dangers of trans fats.
As founding president of the Weston A. Price Foundation, Sally is a major spokesperson for wholesome nutrition. The author of the best-selling Nourishing Traditions, she travels the world, lecturing and teaching on healthy nutrition and traditional cuisine to thousands of people. Mary and Sally have also coauthored numerous articles on the complex subject of diet and health for various health publications.
Recipe: Cream of Parsnip Soup
A Recipe from Jessica Prentice
Parsnips are so underrated. They should be one of the stars of winter cooking. They are absolutely delicious roasted, mashed, or added to stews or potpies. My favorite way to eat them is as a creamy soup!
Cream of Parsnip Soup
2 Tbsp butter
2-3 leeks, sliced into rounds and well rinsed
4 medium or 1-2 large parsnips, cut into chunks
1 bouquet garni (an herb bundle tied with string) including a sprig of parsley and a bay leaf, as well as any or all of the following: a sprig of thyme, a sprig of sage, a rosemary stem
Chicken stock (preferably a light-colored, not dark stock) or filtered water to cover, probably a little less than a quart
1 cup whole milk (preferably raw) or half-and-half (half milk, half cream, also preferably raw) or 3/4 cup raw cream, creme fraiche, yogurt or buttermilk
Salt and pepper to taste
A dollop of creme fraiche;
and/or finely minced rosemary, thyme, sage, or parsley leaves (or a combination of these herbs);
or a grating of nutmeg;
or a grind of black pepper
1. Heat the butter in a medium-sized soup pot. Add the leeks and sautee until soft.
2. Add the parsnips and sautee for a moment.
3. Add stock or water to cover the vegetables by about 1/2 of an inch. Add the bouquet garni, cover, and bring the pot to a boil.
4. Reduce heat and simmer covered until all is soft.
5. Turn off the heat. At this point you can let the soup cool a little by letting it sit uncovered or transferring it to a serving bowl. If you are using raw or cultured dairy, this will help to preserve the enzymes.
6. Remove the bouquet garni.
7. Puree the soup with an immersion blender (or in a blender), adding the milk or other dairy until the soup is the consistency you like, and a big pinch of salt and pepper as you blend. Taste the soup and adjust the seasonings.
Serve with a dollop of creme fraiche (or yogurt) and a sprinkling of herbs, nutmeg, or pepper.
Jessica Prentice is both a professional chef and a passionate home cook. She currently conducts Wise Food Ways cooking classes, writes a monthly New Moon Newsletter on her Stirring the Cauldron website and offers monthly Full Moon Feasts in the Bay Area. She is a Bay Area chapter head for the Weston A. Price Foundation for wise traditions in food, farming, and the healing arts. She is at work on a book about food and culture, due out in Fall 2005 from Chelsea Green Publishing.
© 2004 Jessica Prentice
We invite you to attend the first Fourfold Healing Conference, coming up July 29-31, 2005 in Oakland, CA. Sally Fallon, Jaimen McMillan and others will join me for a three-day series of workshops in which we will explore various aspects of the fourfold path to healing. More information will be available here on our website in early March. Stay tuned.